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ABOUT TURKEY
Turkey  the cradle of cultures and civilizations connecting Europe and Asia and capital of civilizations that have reined the lands of Anatolia for centuries  .

Since the beginning of history, Anatolia, well known as one the earliest settlements, has continued to flourish with the migration of various tribes, and accumulated a large cultural heritage through a line of succeeding empires and civilizations. Many empires ranging from the Sumerians to the Hittites, the Lydians to the Byzantines and the Seljuks to the Ottomans have once thrived and expired within the borders of Turkey.

Ankara is the capital of Turkey, which established a democratic regime with the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles, connecting the seas of this magnificent landscape surrounded by the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, Aegean and Marmara seas, function as bridges connecting the lands of the region almost like silk threads. Greece and Bulgaria to the west, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan to the east and Iran, Iraq, and Syria to the south are the border neighbors of Turkey. The member of various international organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization and the Organization of the Islamic Conference our country continuous to evolve and grow at rapid speed.

Turkey is much the same as an open air museum thanks to its magnificent heritage comprised of historical and cultural monuments and sites built everywhere in Anatolia since the ancient times. With the establishment Çatalhöyük, the first proto-city settlement of the Neolithic Age, history began to leave its marks discernible today even in the tiniest structures.

Located at the mid-point of the European, Asian and African continents, Turkey has a varied geography rich in mountains, plains, caves, seas and many other natural formations and beauties. All types of sports activities and more specifically outdoor sports can be done amidst a breathtaking nature providing both for adrenaline and entertainment.

The hub of all religions that have been lost in time or still exist, Anatolia is particularly rich in monuments and heritages bearing traces of diverse religious cultures. According to Christianity, for instance, pilgrims travelling the route of the seven holy churches including Ephesus, Izmir, Bergama, Salihli, Alasehir, Denizli and Akhisar are considered to have fulfilled their duty of pilgrimage.Furthermore, many branches of art that originated in the Anatolian lands and were introduced to the world are still kept alive and continue to be developed in the present day.

Entertaining and lively folk dances and songs, which originated from the combination of the local culture with music and dance, provide for unique local entertainment in every province you visit.

Thanks to its geographical position located at the meeting point of three continents, Turkey is able to offer fast and convenient transportation with more than 200 direct flights to various destinations in the world and connecting flights to all other destinations
around the globe.

It is also possible to explore different corners of Turkey by entering the country via highway through neighboring countries located in Asia and Europe.

Worldwide famous cruise ships visit the major ports of Turkey on their route. Passengers of these cruise ships have the opportunity to visit and explore the port and city centre of Istanbul, Izmir and Kusadasi. Ferries between Northern Cyprus and Mersin and between Bodrum, Marmaris and the Greek islands provide for other alternatives to get to Turkey from other lands.

Turkey, well known particularly for its hospitality and friendliness, welcomes its visitors any time of the year offering a spectacular countryside and unique monuments all over the land! You may already enjoy your vacation in Turkey!
Credit Cards: Visa, Mastercard, Diners Club, American Express.
Banking Hours: Monday-Friday: 09.00 – 12.00, 13.30 – 17.00.
Tipping: In hotels and restaurants if a service charge is not added to the bill, it is customary to tip between 10 and 15%.
Telephone: Roaming agreements exist with most international mobile phone companies. Coverage is mostly good, but can be patchy in some rural areas.
Country Telephone code: 90

Climate
Proud to possess numerous riches in every corner and territory of the country from east to west and north to south, Turkey is blessed also with a wide range of climatic diversity. One may encounter different climate zones in different areas of Turkey which is comprised of seven geographical regions and experience various climates in one day!
TEMPERATURE AT ISTANBUL

Temp

E

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Max C°

10°

15°

20°

25°

27°

27°

24°

19°

13°

10°

Min C°

12°

16°

18°

19°

16°

12°

Currency and exchange rates
The national currency is the New Turkish Lira ( YTL) . There are coins of 5 . , 10. , 25. , 50.kuruş ( cents of the new lira ) , 1 and notes of 1, 5, 10,20,50 , 100. As of January 1, 2005 entered into the new Turkish lira which reduces the previous lira six zeros .
Currency exchange can be done at the exchange offices usually open until midnight . Eurocheques and traveler’s checks are generally accepted in banks. The credit cards such as Visa , Mater , Diner’s , the Euro are being accepted by most of the shops  and restaurants .

Value January 2015 :
1 EURO = 2.95 TL

Water :
In Turkey, the water is not drinkable therefore advised to drink bottled water.

Electricity
The current is 220 volts.

Turkish Cuisine
One of the most precious and diverse treasures of Turkey is, of course, the Turkish cuisine. The variety offered by this magnificent heritage of flavors which evolved over the centuries with the blending of the culinary cultures of many communities and civilizations is limitless. Thousands of unique delicacies and specialties ranging from meat dishes to cold dishes with olive oil, from sorbets to spices are waiting to be served to guests from all over the world.

Traditional drinks
The drinks in the Turkish cuisine are varied, although those infusions, whose ingredients are grown in Turkey. Experts recognize that you can not fully appreciate the Turkish culinary specialties if they are not accompanied by the traditional drinks of the place.
Coffee and tea have special preparation. The Turkish coffee and tea  are the symbols of  Turkish hospitality. The English word "coffee " comes from the Turkish " kahve " because although the country of origin of coffee is from  Ethiopia , it had spreaded throughout Istanbul in the sixteenth century.
Afternoon tea served with biscuits or cakes , represents almost a ritual in Turkish homes. Actually, the food has a social function in Turkish culture .

Religious Holidays in 2015
Ramadan Holiday  :  from July 17 to July 19
Sacrifice Holiday :  from 24 to 27 September

National Holidays in 2015
Sovereignty and Children Day : April 23
Youth and Sports Day :  May 19
Victory Day :  August 30
Republic Day :  October 29

Language
Turkish is one of the most spoken languages ​​in the world . In its various forms , is spoken by 150 million people in an area extending from the center of the former Yugoslavia and on to a province of China called Xinjiang . It is a member of the Ural -Altaic language group and its closest relatives are Europeans Hungarian and Finnish.
Since 1278 has been the official language of the Turks but has seriously influenced by Persian and Arabic during the Ottoman Empire period . The Turkish today is actually the same language of the Ottoman era but cleaned vocabulary of Arab and Persian language by Atatürk.

VOCABULARY

THE NUMBERS

Yes : Evet

1 : Bir

No : Hayır

2 : İki

Hello : Merhaba

3 : Üç

Good morning : Günaydın

4 : Dört

Good evening : İyi akşamlar

5 : Beş

Good Night : İyi geceler

6 : Altı

How are you ? : Nasılsınız?

7 : Yedi

I am fine : İyiyim

8 : Sekiz

Thank you: Teşekkür ederim

9 : Dokuz

Excurse me : Özür dilerim

10 : On

Please : Lütfen

11 : Onbir

Not at all : Bir şey değil

12 : Oniki

Nice: Güzel

13 : Onüç

Good : İyi

14 : Ondört

Bad : Kötü

20 : Yirmi

How much ? : Ne kadar?

30 : Otuz

Cheap : Ucuz

35 : Otuzbeş

Expensive : Pahalı

40 : Kırk

Much : Çok

50 : Elli

Less: Az

60 : Altmış

Water : Su

70 : Yetmiş

Milk : Süt

80 : Seksen

Salt : Tuz

90 : Doksan

Spice: Biber

100 : Yüz

Tea : Çay

200 : İkiyüz

Beer : Bira

1,000: Bin

Wine : Şarap

1.000.000: Bir milyon

White: Beyaz

1.000.000.000: Bir milyar

Red : Kırmızı

Bread : Ekmek

Coffee : Kahve

Sugar : Şeker

Ice : Buz

Palace: Saray

Mosque : Camii

River : Nehir

Sea : Deniz